Works Cited

CandyMan. Online definitions,

Crash, Doctor. "The Techno-Revolution." Phrack, 1 (6), 1986.

Deane, Joel. "Has Back Orifice gone legit?",4153,1015473,00.html, ZDNET: July 12, 1999.

Dibbel, Julian. "The Prisoner: Phiber Optik Goes Directly to Jail." Online Village Voice article,, 1994.

"electrohippies website.", 1999.

"Falling Through the Net: Defining the Digital Divide." Online Report,, 1999.

Gibson, William. Neuromancer. Electronic book,, 1984.

Gilboa, Netta. Interview of Erik Bloodaxe. Online,, 1994.

Hafner, Katie and John Markoff. Cyberpunk: Outlaws and Hackers on the Computer Frontier. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991.

"Human Development Report." Online report,, 1999.

Jordan, Tim and Paul Taylor. "A Sociology of Hackers." The Sociological Review, 46 (4), 1998, 757-780.

"Lamer Speak." Online text file,, 1996.

Levy, Steven. Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution. Electronic book,, 1984.

Mentor, The. "The Conscience of a Hacker." Phrack, 1 (7), 1986.

Phrack. Online electronic journal, Issues 1 55 : 1985-1999.

Meyer, Gordon R. "The Social Organization of The Computer Underground." Online Masters Thesis,, 1989.

Mizrach, Steve. "Old Hackers, New Hackers: What's the Difference?" Online essay,

Online Congressional Testimony., 1993.

Raymond, Eric S. "A Brief History of Hackerdom." Online essay,, 1999.

Robin, Michael. "Technology For The Coming Millennium." Interview of Kirkpatrick Sale. Online,, 1996.

Sterling, Bruce. The Hacker Crackdown. Electronic book,, 1994.

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Theoretical Framework
Hacking History
Phone Hacking
What is Hacking?
Juvenile Discourse, Black Hats, and White Hats
Hacker Language
Juvenility and Carding
Problems with the White Hat Hacking Discourse
Nostalgic Discourse
Problems with the Nostalgic Discourse
Law Enforcement and Computer Security Discourse
The Legal Discourse
Problems with the Law Enforcement Discourse
Media Discourse
Hackers as Resistance (illegal and legal)
Limitations to Resistance
Works Cited